Recently, the State Council approved the National Development and Reform Commission and other departments "to promote the expansion of domestic demand, to encourage cars, home appliances," to implement the "new" implementation plan. Experts estimate that the implementation of the â€œrenewal of oldâ€ policy for automobiles can speed up the phase-out of 1 million old cars. According to statistics, in 2008 Chinaâ€™s vehicle ownership has exceeded 60 million, according to a 7% theoretical scrap calculation, scrapped vehicles exceeded 4 million.
At present, China has entered the automobile society. In the future, there will be a substantial increase in the number of car ownership and scraps and the number of spare parts needed for maintenance. How to effectively recycle and use renewable resources in used cars is a major issue facing the sustainable development of China's auto industry.
â€œRemanufacturingâ€ is the industrialization process of high-tech repair and transformation of used products, which is not only an advanced manufacturing that saves resources, but also a green manufacturing that protects the environment. As a high-level form of renewable resources utilization, remanufacturing is also one of the important ways to develop circular economy and promote energy conservation and emission reduction. Making full use of the secondary resources contained in discarded automotive products, saving the energy, water, and raw materials needed to manufacture new products, and vigorously developing the automobile remanufacturing industry will not only increase the competitiveness of China's auto industry, but also promote the sustainable development of the industry. means.
Recycling Remanufacturing to Promote Energy Saving
Remanufacturing is an important way to realize the three principles of â€œreduction, reuse, and recyclingâ€ of circular economy. It not only refers to the restoration of old products, but more importantly integrates production, cleaning, recycling, and utilization. In fact, more than 90% of steel, non-ferrous materials and other parts of automobiles can be recycled. Compared with new products, the cost of remanufactured products is only 50% of new products, while saving energy by 60% and saving materials by 70%.
According to industry experts, remanufacturing in the automotive industry is an industry that saves resources while also highlighting environmental protection.
There are two cases that fully illustrate this point. Since 1947, Volkswagen AG has manufactured 7.48 million engines, saving about 59 million kilowatt hours of energy, and saving more than 384,000 tons of steel (aluminum and aluminum). In China, Dongfeng Cummins Engine Company plans to remanufacture about 10,000 engines by 2010, which can save electricity by 11.6 million kWh and save 6500 tons of materials.
â€œThe automobile industry remanufacturing is a typical energy saving and material saving industry, and the effect is very impressive.â€ He Guangyuan, Honorary President of China Association of Automobile Manufacturers, said, â€œIn general, comparing remanufactured products with new products, it can save energy by 60% and save materials. For the automotive industry, there are many ways to save energy and reduce emissions, and remanufacturing is undoubtedly an important way."
Zhu Fushou, member of the Standing Committee of the Dongfeng Company Party Committee and general manager of Dongfeng Motor Co., Ltd., believes that practice in Europe and the United States has proven that remanufacturing is an important way to realize circular economy, especially for the remanufacturing and reuse of old auto parts. Reduce the consumption of resources and environmental pollution, and fundamentally change people's concept of consumption, it can not only enhance the competitiveness of traditional industries, but also can enhance the company's sustainable development capabilities, with significant economic, environmental and social benefits.
At present, the remanufacturing of automobile parts and components has been widely used in the developed countries of the automotive industry. In the United States, the largest remanufacturing industry is remanufacturing in the automotive sector. There are more than 50,000 companies engaged in remanufacturing, and the total annual sales exceed US$50 billion. In Japan, Honda, Nissan and other auto companies have achieved more than 95% recovery of auto parts.
â€œThe remanufacturing of parts and components in China has a very good development base and potential in terms of technology maturity, economy, and industrial scale,â€ says He Guangyuan.
Fu Yiping, executive vice chairman of the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers' Expert Committee, took the remanufacturing of 10,000 Steyr engines as an example, calculated an account for the reporter and produced 10,000 more Steyr engines, which can recover an added value of 323 million yuan. Achieved profits and taxes of 29 million yuan, saving 290 million yuan. â€œIn 2008, Chinaâ€™s auto production has already approached 10 million vehicles, and its vehicle ownership has exceeded 60 million. According to the theoretical scrap amount, it may exceed 4 million.â€ He said, â€œIf we can realize the remanufacturing of these products, we will not only Greatly reduce the adverse impact of these products on the environment, and can effectively save energy and costs, which is exactly the same with the current circular economic society advocated by the state for energy conservation, emission reduction and consumption reduction."
Pilot industrial system first formed gradually
In the United States, Japan, the European Union and other developed countries and regions, automobile remanufacturing has a history of more than 50 years, and a complete set of industrial systems has been formed. In China, along with the launch of trials for 14 vehicle (machine) manufacturing companies and auto parts remanufacturing companies, and the issuance of relevant policies such as the "Automotive Parts Remanufacturing Pilot Management Measures", the automobile remanufacturing industry system is gradually forming.
In March 2008, China officially established 14 vehicle (machine) manufacturing companies and auto parts remanufacturing companies such as FAW, Dongfeng, and Jianghuai to carry out pilot remanufacturing of auto parts. The range of auto parts products for pilot remanufacturing is tentatively set as follows: engine, gearbox, generator, starter, and steering gear.
At the same time, the â€œAdministrative Measures for the Pilot Remanufacturing of Auto Partsâ€ has also been issued. The "Measures" clearly stipulates that remanufacturing enterprises are temporarily not allowed to dispose of the "five major assemblies" (engines, transmissions, front and rear axles, and frames) from retired automobile dismantling companies for remanufacturing, and other parts and components are in accordance with the "Administrative Measures for Retirement of Used Vehicles". Relevant regulations shall be implemented; remanufactured products shall in principle not be lower than the quality warranty period for new products of the same type; remanufactured parts and components enterprises may not reclaim or remanufacture any other enterprise products that have not been authorized; remanufactured products shall enter the automobile production enterprise after-sales service The system shall not be directly sold to the social retail market for circulation; the remanufacturing enterprise shall obtain the right to use the trademark of the original manufacturer of the remanufactured old part.
The implementation of this policy has also provided a strong policy guarantee for the development of the automobile remanufacturing industry. A group of domestic automobile manufacturing companies have taken the lead in the development of the industry. In China National Heavy Duty Truck Group, Jinan Fuqiang Power Co., Ltd. has endeavored to carry out all-round remanufacturing of auto parts in recent years, and has made progress in many aspects such as organizational structure, technological innovation model, supporting project management, publicity and promotion, and after-sales service. . Chairman Xing Zhong stated that their goal is to achieve 50,000 remanufactured engines by 2010.
At Dongfeng Motor Co., the re-manufacturing of automobiles was initiated by a "group-led, two-winged" strategic plan. According to Zhu Fushou, at present, Dongfeng Hongtai has mastered all the technological processes for automobile dismantling and remanufacturing, and Dongfeng Cummins has also started a remanufacturing project for engine parts. Now it has the ability to remanufacture 3,000 vehicles each year. Dongfeng also plans to invest 200 million yuan in a three-year period to build a new 300,mu-meter auto parts remanufacturing pilot base. After the pilot base is completed, it is estimated that 50,000 used cars can be recycled and disposed annually, 100,000 tons of used materials can be recycled, and 100,000 sets of auto parts can be manufactured.
In addition, the "Auto Parts Remanufacturing Technology Training" project declared by the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers, as the third batch of continuing education projects in modern manufacturing ("653 Project"), has been approved by the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security. Publish to the public on their website.
A lot of information shows that the "green manufacturing" of China's auto industry has embarked on the journey. However, according to statistics reported by the China Automobile Association for 14 pilot enterprises, if we are to meet the development targets set by the state in 2010, relying on 14 current development goals is far from meeting the needs of the development of the situation.
According to He Guangyuan, China's auto recycling, utilization, and remanufacturing markets have a huge market space. "According to the spare parts worth 1,000 yuan per car, and 60 million social possessions, the total demand for spare parts will reach a scale of 60 billion yuan. If 5% of remanufactured products are used, a remanufacturing of 3 billion yuan will be needed. Products, but at present China's auto remanufacturing products are less than 800 million yuan, and there is a big gap."
According to the statistics provided by the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers, by 2010, the remanufacturing capacity of auto parts in China will be: remanufacturing about 110,000 engines, remanufacturing about 60,000 transmissions, and manufacturing about one million generators and starting machines. The combined output value of the two is also less than 2.5 billion yuan. "Compared with the remanufactured developed countries like the United States, we still have a considerable gap. A few years ago, the output value of US auto parts remanufacturing has reached 50 billion U.S. dollars, and we have only more than 300 million U.S. dollars." Honorary President of China Automobile Industry Association He Guangyuan Says, "Whether from the market demand or narrowing the gap with the developed countries, the development of China's automobile remanufacturing industry has much to offer."
Many parties work together to expand new space for industrial development
Automobile remanufacturing is a complicated "system engineering", which includes everything from the design and production of new models to daily maintenance and repairs, as well as the recycling, scrapping, dismantling and reuse of vehicles. Vigorously expanding the remanufacturing industry in the automotive industry in China also requires the joint efforts of consumers, automobile manufacturers and remanufacturers, and related departments.
According to Qi Yiping, from the year of development of pilot projects for remanufacturing of auto parts, consumer perception barriers, low technical standards, and inadequate policies are still three major issues that restrict China's auto remanufacturing. "Although the specific problems faced by various companies are not the same, but on the whole, the problem is still concentrated in these three areas." Qi Yiping said.
In the use phase, whether consumers recognize remanufactured products is an important prerequisite for the development of the automobile remanufacturing industry. It is understood that many consumers are currently not aware of the remanufactured parts and components, and they do not understand the "rejected" auto parts and components that can be remanufactured. They believe that remanufactured products are inferior to new ones and are not willing to use remanufactured products. Some consumers think that if they drive a premium car, if they replace a remanufactured tire, they will lose face.
In this regard, Ruan Yiping suggested that although remanufactured products are not new products, but the technical performance and product quality are not worse than new products, so relevant departments and auto manufacturers and remanufacturers should further intensify publicity efforts so that consumers can understand the remanufactured products. , understand the benefits of using remanufactured products.
In terms of technical level, automotive green design is an important guarantee for the successful implementation of remanufacturing. The green design includes the product from the creative, the concept, the non-pollution and non-toxic selection of raw materials and processes, to the design of manufacturing, use, recycling, recycling, and other aspects, which includes the design of the entire life cycle of the product. At present, there are not many auto manufacturers that can take the initiative to do this.
At the same time, the small number, low output, and small scale of China's automobile remanufacturing enterprises are also important factors that restrict the development of the industry. At present, domestic remanufactured products are mainly concentrated on engine parts, transmissions, and motor vehicles with high added value. Regarding other parts and components, technology, capital, and equipment, enterprises have not paid attention to it.
Compared with developed countries in the automotive industry, China's automobile remanufacturing is still in its infancy. In the interview, one of the most heard words by reporters was: Progress in exploration. Remanufacturing differs from new products in that its product process methods, technical equipment, old parts recovery and management, production organization, etc., have no mature experience to be referenced and must be explored and improved in practice. Countries with advanced automobile remanufacturing technologies have fully considered the recycling process in the areas of material selection, structure function, manufacturing process, storage and transportation methods, product use, waste disposal, etc., in product design, production, consumption, and recycling. All aspects are strictly controlled.
According to reports, at present, China's automobile remanufacturing enterprises report the strongest source of old parts; secondly, many remanufacturers increase the tax burden for remanufactured enterprises when they purchase old engines because they do not have invoices to offset VAT. The circulation of auto parts remanufactured products is also very important. For example, product identification, market access, remanufactured product quality standards, and management standards in the circulation of remanufactured products all require relevant policies to be regulated in a timely manner. Therefore, relevant experts called for relevant departments to introduce more support, encourage and regulate policies as soon as possible, and create a good environment for the development of the automobile remanufacturing industry.
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